Monthly Archives: April 2010
Historically – that is since the Vedic periods – India had been a very large group of monarchies, ranging in size from very small to very large, such as the size of a present small village of population of 500 to the size of an Empire with a population of 10 million or more … in those days. The ruling kings were benevolent dictators – highly educated in and self-governed by Dharma (Ethics). The rules of succession were laid down so clearly, that there were hardly any conflicts on that account. Competence to deliver good and impartial justice internally and ability to ward off threats externally were considered most important characteristics needed for a monarch – in the process of selection and election.
While the kings enjoyed the privilege and prerogative of nominating their successors while still functioning as kings – it was not automatic for confirmation. The ministers had the right to question the choice and selection of the king – about the track record of the nominee prince or the heir-apparent. Only after due deliberations on the choice of the successor, the new prince was confirmed for the crowning ceremony. The popularity of the king’s nominee with the common people of the kingdom was also a major factor in determining the suitability of the heir-apparent prior to the confirmation as the crown prince. Even a small blemish in following the ethics or morals by the individual will permanently disqualify him for future kinghood. He was to function as de facto king (king in probation) – under the supervision of the actual king – for fairly long time to prove his mettle before getting the final confirmation as the king by the governing council of ministers. The retired king was never powerless; he held the veto power to disqualify the newly crowned king – if he becomes unpopular later by virtue of his conduct and bad governance. There was no incentive to indulge in corruption, while there were all rewards for good governance. Read the rest of this entry
1. The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. Such activities restricted to a class of natural phenomena. Such activities applied to an object of inquiry or study. Methodological activity, discipline, or study: An activity that appears to require study and method. Knowledge, especially – that gained through experience.
2. In common usage the word science is applied to a variety of disciplines or intellectual activities which have certain features in common. Usually a science is characterized by the possibility of making precise statements which are susceptible of some sort of check or proof. This often implies that the situations with which the special science is concerned can be made to recur in order to submit themselves to check, although this is by no means always the case. There are observational sciences such as astronomy or geology in which repetition of a situation at will is intrinsically impossible, and the possible precision is limited to precision of description.
3. A common method of classifying sciences is to refer to them as either exact sciences or descriptive sciences. Examples of the former are physics and, to a lesser degree, chemistry; and of the latter, taxonomical botany or Zoology. The exact sciences are in general characterized by the possibility of exact measurement. One of the most important tasks of a descriptive science is to develop a method of description or classification that will permit precision of reference to the subject matter.
1. Belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers regarded as creator and governor of the universe.
2. A personal or institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship; the life or condition of a person in a religious order.
3. A set of beliefs, values, and practices based on the teachings of a spiritual leader.
4. A cause, principle, or activity pursued with zeal or conscientious devotion. Read the rest of this entry
Education and Qualification are two completely different aspects of human society – and should not be mixed-up or confused for one another. You will find many qualified but uneducated people – and much educated but unqualified people – world over.
Qualification is essentially a certification by an authority – which means that the certificate issuing authorities vouch for your knowledge & competence. We have seen all over the world that such system has miserably failed to ensure quality – a certificate is no guarantee for competence.
A certificate is only (just represents) what others can think you are – not necessarily what you actually are! But I am not decrying or devaluing this process / system altogether – as it is generally equipped to filter, grade and tag people to some extent quite accurately. Read the rest of this entry
Life is all about “Survival”. No matter what you do – it is always for the purpose of momentary survival –or- to enhance future potential for survival.
Primary cause of pain is enforcement. This can be internally self-imposed, or externally imposed by others. An enforced compression (blow) – or- enforced expansion (pull) on any body part can cause pain. Similarly on the mind too! If a capable person is given lesser position of responsibility – it amounts to enforced compression and thus the pain. Similarly if an incapable person is given heavy responsibility – if amounts to enforced expansion and thus the pain again.
Pleasure is pro-survival. Pain is contra-survival.
Hence all our conscious actions are directed towards obtaining pleasure and avoiding pain. But our sub-conscious instincts drive us and misdirect us towards pain – as a result of confusion – while actually seeking pleasure.
Pain is inevitable in life – as life is dynamic. But sufferance is optional. Read the rest of this entry